Kakinada is located at 16.93°N 82.22°E. The 82½ degrees east longitude, with respect to which IST (Indian Standard Time) is calculated, passes through Kakinada. It has an average elevation of 2 metres (6 ft) and many areas of the city are below sea level. The city has roughly a north-south orientation and is confined to a long narrow strip parallel to the sea coast. The average width of the city is around 6 km but its length is around 15 km. It can be divided into two broad regions. The city in the south called Jagannathapuram is separated from the rest of the city by Buckingham Canal. A couple of bridges connect these parts. This canal and its branches form Medaline Island, which abuts the city in the southwest.
The northern part consists of the more modern part of the city and its recent outgrowth. The eastern part is separated from coastline by an industrial belt, running north-south through the entire length of the city. The city is bordered in the south east by Kakinada bay and a marshy wetland, home to India’s second largest mangrove forest and Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary. One of the branches of the mighty River Godavari, the Gouthami, flows into the Bay of Bengal at this point.
Kakinada is a city and a municipal corporation in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located 465 kilometres (289 mi) east of the state capital, Hyderabad. It is also the headquarters of East Godavari district.The city had an urban population of 312,936 in 2011, making it the sixth largest city by area and the ninth largest city by population in Andhra Pradesh. Its population consists of 157,573 males and 155,363 females. The sex ratio of Kakinada city is 1046 per 1000 females. It is spread over an area of 190 km2.
In the late 1940s (around the time of Indian independence) there was little industry in or around Kakinada, and the local economy consisted mainly of agriculture and fishing. Until the early 1980s (before the fertiliser companies started their operation here), the local economy was mainly based on the textile industry, auto parts, steel industry related ancillary units, agriculture and fishery industries. Today, Kakinada’s economy has a diverse industrial base thanks to an established sea port and port based industries.
The presence of a small island called Hope Island about 5 km from Kakinada coast makes Kakinada Port a natural harbour. It is home to two ports, an anchorage port and a deep water port. Kakinada’s deep-water port is the second largest in the state after Visakhapatnam port and is the first port in the country to be built on a Public-private partnership basis (in 1996). It is operated by Kakinada Seaports Limited. Before the deep water port was built, the anchorage port was the largest of the forty minor ports operating in India. Currently both deep water port and older anchorage port co-exist. A shipyard is under construction, as a joint venture of Singapore-based Sembawang Shipyard Pvt. Ltd and Kakinada Seaports Ltd to provide vessel support services to ships plying around Kakinada port and on the East coast of India.
Vakalapudi Light house located near Vakalapudi village serves Kakinada port
Kakinada’s principal exports now include seafood (prawns, shrimp, fish) and related products, agricultural products like rice, corn, oilmeals, processed food products, chemicals, iron ore, bauxite powder and biofuel.
Imports include chemicals, edible oils, and agricultural products (e.g. wheat and sugar). The deep water port handled a cargo of 13MT during 2009–10.LARSEN&TUBRO,has chosen kakinada to build a ship yard with a worth of rupees 10 billion.
Kakinada is often called the “Fertilizer City” of Andhra Pradesh. The city is home to two fertiliser producers: Nagarjuna Fertilizers is the biggest urea manufacturer in coastal Andhra.
Another company, Godavari Fertilizers owned by Murugappa Group, produces Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate (DAP).
There are several coconut exporters in and around Kakinada to other countries.
The Murugappa Group-owned EID Parry (India) Ltd and Cargill International SA joint venture, Silk Road Sugars Pvt Ltd, has a port-based stand-alone sugar refinery in Kakinada with a refining capacity of 600,000 tonnes. Reliance is also planning to set up a sugar mill.
Natural gas and petroleum
Kakinada is the base for Oil and Natural Gas Corporation’s Eastern Offshore Asset. Several oil companies have Kakinada as a transit point for oil and gasoline shipments. Baker Hughes and Schlumberger are examples of the field development companies working on natural gas fields offshore the city. The Krishna Godavari Basin is considered to be the largest natural gas basin in India and significant discoveries of oil and natural gas were made by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation and Reliance, which has been producing around 60 mmscd of gas for the past two years from its prolific KG D6 block off the Kakinada coast. Reliance has an onshore terminal at Gadimoga village about 25 km from Kakinada to process and distribute gas to other parts of the country. Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation is also working on setting up a similar facility near Mallavaram village south of Kakinada.
Reliance Gas Transportation Infrastructure Ltd (RGTIL) has built a 1,440 km pipeline from Kakinada to Bharuch (Gujarat) to transport 120 million cubic meters per day (mcmd) of natural gas from Krishna-Godavari fields owned by Reliance Industries across India to the west coast.
In 2010, the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board awarded the City Gas Distribution project for Kakinada city to Bhagyanagar Gas Limited, a consortium of GAIL and Hindustan Petroleum.The construction work is underway to supply gas to Kakinada city and the surrounding towns of Samalkot, Peddapuram and Pithapuram, thus making Kakinada the first city in Andhra Pradesh to get piped gas supply for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes along with Hyderabad and Vijayawada.
Edible oil refineries and biofuel plants
In 2002 several edible oil refineries established themselves in Kakinada and the refining capacity has touched 3000 tons per day. Kakinada port is facilitating the imports of crude palm oil, crude soyabean oil. Kakinada has an edible oil refining capacity of more than 3000 MTS per day. Major refineries are Acalmar Oils & Fats Limited (now, taken over by Adani Wilmar Ltd.), Ruchi Infrastructure, Nikhil Refineries Ltd, etc.
The Vakalapudi Industrial park in Kakinada has attracted investments worth over US$10 million from bio-diesel companies such as Reliance Industries, Naturol Bioenergy and Universal Bio Fuel.Andhra Pradesh has entered into a formal agreement with Reliance Industries for Jatropha planting. The company has selected 200 acres (0.81 km2) of land at Kakinada to grow jatropha for high quality bio-diesel fuel.
There are several small and large power plants in and around Kakinada. Spectrum Power Generation Ltd. has a 208MW power plant at Kakinada. In fact, it was one of the first Independent Power Producer in the country. The company is planning to expand the capacity to 1350 MW in phases. Tenders for the first phase of expansion to the tune of 350 MW have been called for recently.A 220 MW Power Station (currently being scaled upwards to 2400 MW at a cost of Rs 100 billion) owned by Reliance Energy Limited,and a 464 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant by GVK group are under operation at Samalkota (Kakinada Rural).All these private power plants supply electricity to the state’s transmission utility, AP TRANSCO, under a Power Purchase Agreement.GMR GROUP owns 220 MW Gas based barge mounted power plant in kakinada.
Kakinada is tier-II cities in India and in Andhra Pradesh where Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) had set up a facility in 2007.
Since the inception of the facility, several companies have started operations in this city and list is growing due to availability of highly educated workforce in the district.
About 36 companies are currently operating in Kakinada. Tech Mahindra will start their operations by 2013 Total turnover of IT/ITES from Kakinada is around Rs 150 million during the last fiscal year. Godavari IT Association of East and West Godavari districts (GITA) is an association of IT companies in the twin Godavari districts which is based out of the city.Some of the prominent IT companies that have set shop here are: Infotech Enterprises,a Hyderabad based multinational software company, Avineon Inc,an US based technology company that provides geospatial and engineering services,Firstobject Technologies,a prominent BPO firm, Krify,UK as well as India based Mobile Apps development company. There are also several small to mid-size software companies that operate in Kakinada which include, I pro tech.,Prominere Software Solutions Pvt Ltd,Myfam Technologies,3One Technologies,TrewPort Technologies,Aaspire Technologies,Traceout Technologies,ForeTell Technologies Private Limited,Mythrii Solutions,Nyros Technologies,Meconzee InfoTech and Software Services,Easty Solutions,etc.
Kakinada is home to Andhra Electronics Ltd., an electronic components manufacturing company, which started operations in 1977.
Auto and iron/steel
There are several auto and iron/steel ancillary industries in Kakinada, such as Sri Ramadas Motor Transport Limited and Sri Bhavani Castings Ltd.
Several rice mills exist in and around Kakinada and some of the rice is exported to other countries.
Fabrication and Machine Shops
Kakinada is home to Decon Engineers,an fabrication cum machine shop, which started its operations in 1984. The company has developed since inception and today, they are “The Experts in Professional Engineering”. They have emerged as the goto place for any and all professional engineering services.